Country context

Hungary has a population of 9,960,0001. There are 13 officially recognised minorities2, the proportion of which is nearly 3% of the total population according to the 2001 census data and about 8–10% according to recent estimates3.

The largest minority is the Roma, which constitute an estimated 6–10% of the country’s total and 60% of the minority population. They are underrepresented in positions of power and have a considerably lower socio-economic status compared with other minorities.

Immigration is a growing phenomenon with 206,909 third-country nationals which makes up approximately 2% of the population. This is quite a small number as compared to the immigration figures of other European countries. The number and proportion of people belonging to the most significant immigrant groups are as follows: Romanians (76,878, 37%), Germans (20,232, 9%), Serbians (16,301, 9%),  Ukrainians (16,537, 9%), Chinese (11,829, 6%) and Slovaks (3%)4.

1 http://portal.ksh.hu/pls/ksh/docs/hun/xftp/gyor/nep/nep21111.pdf
2 And a statutorily recognised linguistic minority, the Deaf people.
3 Edit H. Kontra – Csilla Bartha (2010): Foreign language education in Hungary: Concerns and controversies. In: Sociolinguistica 24/2010. pp. 61-84, p. 74.
4 
http://portal.ksh.hu/pls/ksh/docs/hun/xftp/stattukor/nemzvand/nemzvand09.pdf

Languages in official documents and databases

The national language, foreign languages and R/M languages are dealt with in language legislation and/or language policy documents. The learning and teaching of Hungarian abroad for children and/or adults originating from Hungary is (co-)funded in Austria. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages has been signed and ratified by Hungary. The following 8 R/M languages are recognised in the Charter: Croatian, German, Romani, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, and Boyash. There is official provision in nation- or region-wide education, supported by the Charter, for these 8 languages. Apart from the R/M languages recognised in the Charter, the following R/M languages are promoted by official country documents: Armenian, Bulgarian, Greek, Polish, Rusyn, and Ukrainian.

Official nation-wide data collection mechanisms on language diversity in Hungary exist in terms of periodically updated census data. In these data collection mechanisms, national and R/M language varieties are addressed, based on a home language and a mother tongue question plus a language proficiency question in terms of whether this language can be spoken/understood/read/written.

Since 1 January 2012, the legal framework of language diversity and multilingualism in Hungary has changed. In our country essay, however, we will analyse the linguistic situation based on the legislation in force at the time of the completion of LRE questionnaire.

The (former) Hungarian Constitution does not contain any explicit provisions on the official language of the state. Article 68 set out that the Republic of Hungary shall provide for the protection of national and ethnic minorities and ensure their collective participation in public affairs, the fostering of their cultures, the use of their native languages, education in their native languages and the use of names in their native languages1.

Act LXXVII of 1993 on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities2 recognised 13 minority languages: Armenian, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Gypsy (Romani and Boyash), Polish, Romanian, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene and Ukrainian. In addition to this law, today’s minority and foreign language education is based on the 1993 Public Education Act, the Government Decrees of 1995 on the National Core Curriculum and of 1997 on the school-leaving (‘Matura’) exams, and the 2005 Higher Education Act.

Hungary ratified the two most significant Council of Europe documents, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992/1995/1998) and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995/1998), for the languages of the so-called traditional minorities: Croatian, German, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovene. Act XLIII of 2008 included Gypsy languages (Romani and Boyash) under the scope of Article 2(2).

Act CXXV of 2009 on Hungarian Sign Language and the use of Hungarian Sign Language is considered to be the most up-to-date sign language law in Europe defining the Deaf community as a linguistic minority. According to it, from 1 September 2017 HSL-Hungarian bilingual education will be compulsory for d/Deaf children in schools for the Deaf, meanwhile in integrating schools, it will be optional even if chosen by only one child’s parent. 

There are three important legal instruments on migration: Act I of 2007 on the Admission and Residence of Persons with the Right of Free Movement and Residence, Act II of 2007 on the Admission and Right of Residence of Third-Country Nationals, and Act LXXX of 2007 on Asylum.

The new Hungarian constitution of 2011 (‘Fundamental Law’) recognises the Hungarian language as the official language of the state. It undertakes to protect the Hungarian language and the Hungarian sign language as part of the Hungarian culture. Article XXIX sets out that ’every nationality and ethnic group living in Hungary shall be considered a part of the state forming entity. Every Hungarian citizen belonging to a nationality has the right to undertake and preserve their identity. National and ethnic minorities will have the right to use their own languages, to use their names in their own languages both individually and collectively, to foster their culture and to education in their own languages.’ The new constitution explicitly prohibits the discrimination on the grounds of national origin and language, as well.

Hungarian terminological distinction between ‘national minority’ and ‘ethnic minority’ rests primarily on whether a minority has a ‘kin state’ or not. The Roma do not, hence they are considered to be an ethnic minority. In virtue of Act CLXXIX of 2011 on the Rights of Nationalities, which entered into force on 1 January 2012, ‘nationality’ is the new term to be used instead of ‘national and ethnic minorities’.

Languages in pre-primary education

 

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages

Additional NL
support

National Languages
Target groups
R/ML: all  native speakers only  no support 
FL: all  restricted  no support 
IL: all  native speakers only  no support
NL: all  immigrant children only  no support 
3 none none none
Duration
≥2 years 1 year <1 year  
3 none none none
Minimum group size requirements
 none  5-10  >10
2 none none none
Days per week
 >1 day  0.5-1 day  <0.5 day
3 none none none
Pre-service teacher training
subject-specific general none
3 none none none
In-service teacher training
subject-specific general none
2 none none none
State funding available
full partial none
3 none none none

Languages offered in pre-primary education

R/M Languages

Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Romani/Boyash, Romanian, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene

Foreign Languages

-

Immigrant Languages

-

There is pre-primary education (national minority schools and specific bilingual institutions) in the following nine R/M languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Romanian, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene and Romani/Boyash. Local governments must provide pre-primary education in R/M languages in a settlement only if it is required by the parents of at least eight pupils. There are 927 nurseries with a minority education programme (21% of all nurseries). More than 40,000 children (12.5% of all children in pre-primary education) are enrolled in minority nurseries, with more than 21,000 children enrolled in Gypsy minority education but only 2.4% (approximately 500 children) receiving education in Romani/Boyash language1. In many cases minority programmes (at all levels of the education system) function as covert forms of foreign language (FL) teaching, especially in the case of German, where children may not have a minority background at all, but schools use the minority education label in order to gain extra financial support.
Although pre-primary education in foreign languages is becoming more and more popular in private (generally fee-paying) nurseries, in public institutions it is not common practice. There is no pre-primary education in immigrant languages.

1 The other children receive so-called Gypsy cultural education where the language of instruction is entirely Hungarian. Nemzeti és Etnikai Jogok Országgyűlési Biztosa, Jelentés a nemzeti és etnikai kisebbségi óvodai nevelés helyzetéről. Budapest, 2011,pp.23-42. http://www.kisebbsegiombudsman.hu/data/files/205104474.pdf

Languages in primary education

Organisation

 

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages
Curriculum
coherent and explicit general no guidelines  
3 3 none
Languages used as a medium of instruction (CLIL)
  widespread localised absent  
2 2 none
Target groups
R/ML: all  native speakers only  no support
FL: all  restricted  no support
IL: all  native speakers only  no support
3 3 none
Start of language education
from year 1 from mid-phase end-phase only  
3 2 none
Scheduling
in school hours partly in school hours  outside school hours   
2 3 none
Minimum group size requirements
none 5-10 >10  
2 3 none
Monitoring of language skills
national standardised  school based  absent   
2 2 none
Level to be achieved
Other NL: national or regional norms school norms not specified
FL: linked to CEFR national or school norms not specified
IL: national or regional norms school norms not specified
3 2 none
State funding available
full partial none  
3 3 none

 

NL

National Languages
Curriculum
coherent and explicit general no guidelines  
3
Extra support for newcomers
before mainstream during mainstream  absent   
3
Diagnostic testing on entry
all immigrants only absent  
2
Monitoring of language skills
national standardised  school based  absent   
3

Teaching

 

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages
Teacher qualifications
language teachers general teachers  unqualified   
3 3 none
Pre-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3 3 none
In-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3 3 none
Mobility
incorporated into training informal financial support no informal financial support not applicable  
0 2 0

 

NL

National Languages
Teacher qualifications
language teachers general teachers  unqualified   
3
Pre-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3
In-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3

Languages offered in primary education

R/M Languages

Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Polish, Romani/Boyash, Romanian, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene

Foreign Languages

Compulsory: One language from English, German, French, Italian, Russian

Optional: Latin

Immigrant Languages

-

There are 608 institutions with an R/M language education programme (26.5% of all primary schools). More than 100,000 children (14% of all students in primary schools) are enrolled in R/M language education. The Armenian, Ukrainian and Polish communities do not have minority language education within the public education system and 92% of Roma children are not taught in Romani/Boyash at all1. More than half of students receive German minority education, as parents’ positive attitudes and decisions are influenced by a perceived international market value of the standard variant of the German language.
The following five foreign languages are offered in primary education: English, French, German, Italian and Russian. One foreign language is compulsory from the fourth grade of primary schooling. Provision in immigrant languages is not common practice in primary education, except in a Chinese-Hungarian primary school in Budapest.

Nemzeti és Etnikai Jogok Országgyűlési Biztosa, Jelentés a nemzeti és etnikai kisebbségi általános iskolai nevelés-oktatás helyzetéről, Budapest, 2011, pp. 33-42.
http://www.kisebbsegiombudsman.hu/data/files/217986220.pdf

Languages in secondary education

Organisation

 

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages
Curriculum
coherent and explicit general no guidelines  
3 3 none
Languages used as a medium of instruction (CLIL)
widespread localised absent  
3 2 none
Target groups
R/ML: all  native speakers only  no support
FL: all  restricted  no support
IL: all  native speakers only  no support
3 3 none
Scheduling
in school hours partly in school hours outside school hours  
3 3 none
Minimum group size requirements
none 5-10 >10  
3 3 none
Monitoring of language skills
national standardised school based absent  
2 2 none
Level to be achieved
Other NL: national or regional norms school norms not specified not applicable
FL: linked to CEFR national or school norms not specified not applicable
IL: national or regional norms school norms not specified not applicable
3 3 none
State funding available
full partial none  
3 3 none

 

NL

National Languages
Curriculum
coherent and explicit general no guidelines  
3
Extra support for newcomers
before mainstream during mainstream absent  
3
Diagnostic testing on entry
all immigrants only absent  
2
Monitoring of language skills
national standardised school based absent  
3

Teaching

 

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages
Teacher qualifications
language teachers general teachers unqualified  
3 3 none
Pre-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3 3 none
In-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3 3 none
Mobility
incorporated into training some financial support none not applicable  
0 2 0
Language level required
linked to CEFR national or region-wide standards none not applicable  
0 3 0

 

NL

National Languages
Teacher qualifications
language teachers general teachers unqualified  
3
Pre-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3
In-service teacher training
subject-specific general none  
3
Language level required for non-native speakers
linked to CEFR national or school-based norms not specified  
2

Languages offered in secondary education

R/M Languages

-

Foreign Languages

Compulsory: English, German, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish

Optional: Chinese, Latin

Immigrant Languages

-

Students, in principle, are free to choose which foreign language they wish to study. In practice, the foreign languages available in lower secondary education are English, French, German, Spanish, Italian and Russian. In upper secondary education other languages (e.g. Boyash, Chinese, Romani etc.) are also offered. Still, Hungary ranks unfortunately high in the number of students learning only one foreign language (57.2%; EU average: 33.4%)1.

1 Eurostat (2009): European day of languages. Eurostat News Release, Stat 09/137. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=STAT/09/137&type=HTML

Languages in Further and Higher Education

Further Education (in three institutions)

 

Institution A Institution B Institution C

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages

R/ML

Regional/Minority Languages

FL

Foreign Languages

IL

Immigrant Languages
Range of language support programmes
 wide variety  limited  no specifications
3 3 none 1 1 none 3 3 none
Curriculum
coherent and explicit general no guidelines
3 3 none 2 2 none 2 3 none
Level to be achieved
linked to CEFR national none not applicable
0 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0
State funding available
full partial none
3 3 none 3 3 none 2 2 none

Additional NL
support

National Languages

Additional NL
support

National Languages

Additional NL
support

National Languages
Range of language support programmes
 wide variety  limited  no specifications
3 none 2
Target groups
all restricted none
1 none 3
Curriculum
coherent and explicit general no guidelines
3 none 3
Job related skills
yes no
1 none 3
General upskilling
yes no
3 none 3
State funding available
full partial none
3 none 3
Internships in companies
built into course optional none
1 none 1
Use of EU instruments
yes no
1 none 1

Languages offered across 3 VET institutions in Hungary

R/M Languages

German

Foreign Languages

English

Immigrant Languages

-

Higher Education (in three institutions)

 

Institution A

Institution B

Institution C

Language(s) of instruction
 national, foreign and R/M national and foreign national only
3 3 2
Languages on website
 national, foreign and R/M national and foreign national only
2 2 2
Target groups for additional support in the national language
all restricted none
2 2 2
Level to be achieved in foreign language instruction
linked to CEFR national or institution-based none
2 1 3
Recruitment of non-national students
 international and immigrant only international only native speakers of national language
2 2 3
Mobility for language students
obligatory optional no offer
2 2 2
Mobility for non-language students
obligatory optional no offer
2 2 2

Languages offered across 3 higher education institutions in Hungary

English, French, German, Hungarian as a Second Language, Spanish, Romani/Boyash, Croatian, Italian, Latin, Russian, Polish, Portuguese

Education of national and R/M languages does not play an important role in either VET or university education.

Every university surveyed by Language Rich Europe offers courses where the language of instruction is a foreign language (mainly English, German and French). Certain universities provide their whole (fee-paying) tuition period in a foreign language, thus trying to attract foreign students.

There are six higher education institutions which train minority language teachers. Teacher-training for Armenian and Rusyn is completely missing. Six higher education institutions provide training for lower elementary teachers of Croatian, German, Romani/Boyash, Serbian, Slovak and Romanian languages. Seven institutions provide minority nursery teacher-training programmes in Croatian, German, Romani/Boyash, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene and Romanian languages. Due to the decreasing number of students opting for minority teacher training, the continuous operation of a minority public education system  – except for German – is already under threat1.

Nemzeti és Etnikai Jogok Országgyűlési Biztosa, Jelentés a nemzetiségi felsőoktatás helyzetéről, Budapest, 2011, pp. 4-7.
http://www.kisebbsegiombudsman.hu/data/files/223936615.pdf

Languages in Audiovisual Media and Press

 

Budapest

Pécs

Debrecen

Number of languages on radio
>4 3-4 1-2 national language only
4 3 4
Number of languages on television
>4 3-4 1-2 national language only
4 4 4
Non-national language TV productions
subtitled dubbed
1 1 1
Non-national language films in cinema
subtitled dubbed
1 1 1
R/M language programmes outside of region
always regularly sometimes never
3 1 1
Availability of sign language on TV
always regularly sometimes never
2 2 2

Languages offered in audiovisual media and press across 3 cities in Hungary

Radio

Croatian, German, Slovak, Armenian, Bulgarian, Greek, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene

Television

Croatian, German, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene

Newspapers

German, English, Russian, French, Italian

The media in Hungary is dominated by the national language. However, radio and television programmes are offered in R/M languages in public channels, and there are a few radio stations broadcasting entirely in R/M languages (for example MR4, Radio C). Television programmes in languages other than Hungarian are generally dubbed in Hungarian. Sign language interpretation is offered in important media events. According to the Hungarian Sign Language Act, the public television broadcaster shall ensure that in the course of its broadcasting service all announcements and newscasts of public interest, motion pictures and public service programmes are available with Hungarian subtitling or sign language interpreting for a fixed number of hours from 2010, and in entirety from 2015.

Languages in public services and spaces

Institutionalised language strategies at city level

> 4 3-4 1-2  national language only

frequency of practice: widely practised occasionally practised not practised

Budapest

Pécs

Debrecen

City council services

1 2 2

Website presence

5 5 4

Annual municipal reports

1 0 0

External or internal translators and interpreters

2 2 6

Competencies in languages other than the national language in job descriptions of staff members

4 0 1

Plan or scheme in place to increase skills in languages

1 0 0

Recruitment of speakers of other languages to support corporate objectives

0 1 6

Offer of training in languages to employees

4 1 1

Regularly updated record of skills in languages of employees

0 0 6

Reward or promotion schemes for being able to adequately communicate in other languages

5 1 1

Oral Communications Facilities

>4 3-4 1-2 national language only

Budapest

Pécs

Debrecen

Political debates and decision-making processes at the city council level

2 2 2

Educational services

4 2 3

Emergency services

2 2 4

Health services

3 2 2

Social services

4 2 3

Legal services

4 2 2

Transport services

2 1 2

Immigration and integration services

2 2 4

Tourism services

2 2 3

Theatre programmes

2 2 3

Written Communications Facilities

>4 3-4 1-2 national language only

Budapest

Pécs

Debrecen

Political debates and decision-making processes at the city council level

2 3 1

Educational services

4 3 1

Emergency services

2 3 2

Health services

2 3 2

Social services

4 3 3

Legal services

4 3 3

Transport services

2 1 2

Immigration and integration services

2 3 4

Tourism services

4 3 2

Theatre programmes

2 1 3

Languages offered in public services and public spaces across 3 cities in Hungary (N ≥ 2)

English, German, Croatian, French, Italian, Romanian, Russian, Arabic, Romani, Slovak

The public administration of the three Hungarian cities surveyed are characterised by a moderate multilingual profile. Most cities provide services in oral and/or written form in foreign – and, occasionally, R/M – languages, but institutionalised language strategies are absent. Interpreters are used, although not employed permanently. The repertoire of languages other than Hungarian is dominated by English and to a lesser extent, German. In areas with minority communities, their language may also appear in public services.

Languages in business - 21 companies

General Language Strategies

Widely Practised

Occasionally Practised

Not Practised

Availability of language strategy

3 5 13

Emphasis on language skills in recruitment

5 15 1

International mobility provision

11 6 4

Use of external translators/interpreters

6 4 11

Staff records of language skills

0 1 20

Use of networks for language training

3 2 16

Use of EU programmes/funding

1 0 20

Awareness of EU programmes/funding

0 7 14

Internal Language Strategies

Widely Practised Occasionally Practised Not Practised

NL

National Language

BE

Business English

FL R/ML - IL

NL

National Language

BE

Business English

FL R/ML - IL

NL

National Language

BE

Business English

FL R/ML - IL

Partnerships with education sector

2 2 1 2 2 1 17 17 19

Reward/Promotion schemes based on language skills

0 0 0 6 8 4 15 13 17

Language training provision

2 3 1 3 9 0 16 9 20

Use of CEFR

1 3 0 1 0 0 19 18 21

Language used for workplace documents/intranet

18 12 1 0 3 3 3 6 17

Language used for software, web programmes

17 11 1 1 5 1 3 5 19

External Language Strategies

Widely Practised Occasionally Practised Not Practised

NL

National Language

BE

Business English

FL R/ML - IL

NL

National Language

BE

Business English

FL R/ML - IL

NL

National Language

BE

Business English

FL R/ML - IL

Language used for annual/business reports

17 9 1 0 3 2 4 9 16

Language used for marketing

16 6 1 1 6 3 4 9 15

Language used for branding/identity

16 14 1 2 5 5 3 2 14

Language used for website

18 13 5 0 1 0 3 7 14

Languages other than English offered in business across 21 companies in Hungary (N ≥ 2)

German, Russian, Slovak, Danish, Czech, Croatian, French, Spanish

Businesses surveyed by Language Rich Europe in Hungary generally have a low language profile. One third have some form of language policy, but investment in language skills for their employees is not high. Most of the time language skills are acquired prior to employment. Approximately half of the companies provide limited business English training for employees, while very few provide support in Hungarian for non-native speakers. The national language and English are the main languages used, followed by French and German.

Key Findings overall

Hungary is known as a monolingual country; however, the reality is different. It is impossible to give an exact answer to the question of whether plurilingualism in the classroom and multilingualism in society at large are acknowledged in Hungary as there are several educational forms and different types of schools. Even within the same type of schools, there are huge differences in terms of the efficiency of education. There are three main and two additional types of educational programmes for minorities: the three main types are mother-tongue, bilingual, language teaching, with the additional types being academic improvement education for Gypsy minorities and supplementary minority education.

There are public schools which specialise in supporting foreign language teaching and bilingual education. In these institutions support for and education of languages other than the national language usually takes place at a high level, whereas general education is characterised by a lower level in this respect.

Most Roma and Deaf people in Hungary share a number of common features. Coupled with a long tradition of being evaluated in terms of the degree of recognition of their language (Romani and Sign Language respectively), these features include a lower or higher degree of social separation, which is linked to a low employment rate, poor social situation, few labour market opportunities, and deep poverty. All of these are closely related to the low level of education and the high drop-out rate from public education of a significant part of the Roma and Deaf youth.

The lack of immigrant languages in education, business and public administration is mainly due to the relatively low number of immigrants. Most are ethnic Hungarians speaking Hungarian as their mother tongue, coming from neighbouring countries. The proportion of foreign students in public education is also low1.

Although the legal framework of support for minority languages and foreign language education is well-established, much remains to be done in the field of practical implementation of multilingualism2. Statistics provided by the Special Eurobarometer 243 in 2006 indicate that only 42% of the population can actually carry out a conversation in at least one foreign language as opposed to the EU average of 56%3.

Illés Katalin – Medgyesi Anna (2009): Migráns gyermekek oktatása. Menedék – Migránsokat Segítő egyesület. Az Európai Unió Európai Integráció Alapjának támogatásával megvalósuló program kiadványa. http://www.menedek.hu/files/20090831konyv_belso.pdf
Edit H. Kontra – Csilla Bartha (2010): Foreign language education in Hungary: Concerns and controversies. In: Sociolinguistica 24/2010. pp. 61-84. at p. 68.
European Commission (2006): Europeans and their languages 2005.
ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf

Promising initiatives and pilots

There are many promising initiatives and innovative developments in the provision of the Deaf and Hungarian Sign Language as well as Romani and Boyash languages in Hungary. These include: the implementation of the new Sign Language Law; two new programmes at Eötvös Loránd University - HSL BA and Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Deaf Learners; The Kedves Ház (Nice House) in Nyírtelek; the ‘Pedellus programme’ in Ózd; the Dr. Ámbédkar School project in Sajókaza; and the Gandhi Public Foundation and High School in Pécs1. In the field of foreign language education, the World–Language Project must be mentioned, which operated from 2003 to 2007 and took the form of several sub-programmes2.

Although linguistic assimilation has been taking place within minority communities, one can experience positive attitudes towards multilingual skills, where younger generations are highly motivated in learning different foreign languages. The Russian language also has a growing market value, which is a strong evidence for the fact that Hungary succeeded in overcoming the ideological bias towards past practices of foreign language education.

Bartha Csilla – Hámori Ágnes (2011): Cigány közösségek, nyelvi sokszínűség és az oktatás nyelvi kihívásai – magyarországi helyzetkép. In: Európai Tükör, XI. évfolyam, 3. szám, pp. 107-131.
http://www.kormany.hu/download/7/1b/20000/europai_tukor_2011_03.pdf
Fischer Márta – Öveges Enikő (2008): A Világ–Nyelv pályázati csomag háttere és megvalósítása (2003-2006). Áttekintő tanulmány. http://www.okm.gov.hu/letolt/vilagnyelv/vny_fischer_oveges_090115.pdf

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